会员登陆
登录加载中...
超级搜索
栏  目  
类  别  
关键词  
 站内搜索   网络搜索
  
 当前位置:教程首页>>教育论文>>英语>>An Essay on Heuristic Teaching of English in High School

An Essay on Heuristic Teaching of English in High School

来源:黑龙江省鸡西实验中学校园网 发表日期: 2011-4-29 下午 03:31:42

    

An Essay on Heuristic Teaching of English in High School

                   Wang  Xiaoyu

    Introduction

    There are some methods that are often used during teaching such as telling, explaining, talking, questioning and discussing, etc. And some other methods have certain influence on English teaching, too. However, no matter which kind of method we use, which kind of teaching system we take, in order to deepen educational reform, advance quality-oriented education in a more cost-effective manner, to make the students grasp knowledge effectively, we must change the educational idea that hinder students initiative spirit and innovative ability and train their abilities of analyzing and solving problems. This kind of method is heuristic teaching that we give energetic support to now. And it is particularly important in English teaching of high school. It is one of the greatest achievements of the reform in education and stands the test of teaching practice in past dynasties of our country. It helps training students ability of thinking and improving education quality, more importantly, arousing students’ enthusiasm for further study, which benefits them all their life.

     The Background of Heuristic Teaching

    1.1  Definition of Heuristic Teaching

    Heuristic teaching is a teaching method that a teacher, according to the objective law of the learning process in teaching, leads students to grasp the knowledge initiatively, positively and consciously. But we must understand that, teaching has no law definitely. Heuristic teaching only represents a kind of teaching thought and it is not a kind of fixed, close mode. It is a kind of teaching guideline which is open, absorbing new teaching experience and substantiating itself and developing constantly, being far from the traditional "The spoon-feed". Therefore, what heuristic teaching studied are that students study law and the teachers teaching practice, so it will absorb the newest achievement of educational scientific research and psychology to substantiate itself continuously. Secondly, according to purpose of heuristic teaching, the course of it is encouraging and guiding, its purpose lies in impelling students to think actively and probe voluntarily, obtaining knowledge consciously.

    1.2  Background of Heuristic Teaching

    In China, heuristic comes from ancient educationist Confucius. From his "no puzzle, no inspiration" to Mencius "draw the bow but not release the arrow---show people what to do without doing it for them", and after Confucius, the author of "learning" to Chairman Maos educational view "Let students study livelily and voluntarily, develop from all of moral education, intellectual education, physical education", all of these have further elucidated the thought of heuristic teaching, that is, advocating inspiring students instead of leading them; being strict with them but far from exerting pressure; pointing out the route of study but making them give the conclusion by themselves. From all of these, we can also know that the statesman and thinkers in successive dynasties of our country pay great attention to and advocate this kind of teaching method deeply.      

    In Europe, Socrates, thinker of Ancient Greek, inspires students to think independently so as to gain truth with "question & answer". Both J.A. Comenius, Czechic educationist in the 17th century and J.H. Pestalozzi, Swiss educationist in the 18th century of the object "pouring-in" teaching, they  advocate that the things are not understood completely by comprehensibility cant be studied by the method of learning by heart . J.F. Herbart, German educationist advocates inspiring childrens existing experience and knowledge as the starting point in study, which is called and inspired the heuristic teaching method.

    The heuristic educational thought in the modern teaching theory improves on the basis of the development of modern psychology and pedagogy. The characteristic is: emphasizing that the students are the subject during learning, the teacher should arouse students enthusiasm to realize the combination between teachers leading role and students enthusiasm; emphasizing the abundant development of students intelligence to realize the combination between the study of system  knowledge and the full development of intelligence; putting emphasis on stimulating students inherent  motive power to realize the combination between the motive force and sense of responsibility for study; emphasizing that the theory contacting practice to realize the combination between knowledge on book and direct experience.

    The essence of heuristic teaching lies in the correct interaction of dealing with learning aid. Heuristic teaching reflects the objective law of teaching. A lot of creation and opinion in reform of teaching method of some countries are all related with the requirement for heuristic teaching.

     

     Application in the English Class of High School of Heuristic Teaching

    2.1  Introduction

    We pay much attention to and strengthen the teaching of English of high school over the years to make it favorable to students knowledge of folkways and customs from all parts of the world and promote the development of their ability of reforming the world. How could we achieve this goal? I think that, the key lies in using the modern educational theory to reform the classroom instruction, improve teaching method, raise the efficiency of classroom instruction, and the basic one of which is to require teacher should insist on and carry out the heuristic teaching principle consistently.

    The classroom instruction is the basic form of middle school teaching, and heuristic teaching is the essential route to obtain ideal result. The so-called heuristic teaching, its essence is arousing students enthusiasm, initiative and creativity, inspiring their interest for study, inspiring their positive thinking to achieve the goal of drawing inferences about other cases from one instance and understanding the rest by analogy from the study of the modern educational theory. However, at the beginning of my study, in the teaching course, I think that one-sided, in the course of teaching, heuristic teaching is just taking question-and-answer" and making the classroom active. However, practice has proved, the result of this method is unsatisfactory. So I consider repeatedly and have carried on some study to the teaching course of my own teacher, which make me realize that, tracing it to its cause, my fault lies in my equaling the simple "question-and-answer" with "heuristic teaching". Studying repeatedly, I understand the application in the English classroom of high school of heuristic education tentatively.

    2.2  Application in Hearing Teaching

    During hearing teaching, teacher should break the regular teaching method --- practicing some hearing parts on book only. We can add something related, inspiring them to think from one part to another. For example: It is "introduction" in the first unit of the first English book in high school, it can be listened to and then repeated on the whole by students, at last, we can make them discuss other ways according to the same way. We can also append some contents which are a little difficult for them to let students find out detailed information to practice their hearing and the ability of dealing with details. On the other hand, we can let the students participate in the teaching practice of listening. In the teaching process of listening, teacher plays a leading role, the student is the subject, but teachers leadership should aim at the design of teaching measure according to the students’ actual situation, at the instruction of method of learning and the enhancement in the listening skill. In the scene conversation, we may let some students whose pronunciations are perfect read the hearing material loudly and vividly under the teacher’s instruction and record them. In the class, students’ recording can enable the others even the timid ones to have the strong interest in participation. The inspiration of this kind of method to students who participate in the sound recording and those who don’t is bigger than other rigid preach, and also conforms to the students’ psychological characteristic.

    2.3  Application in Oral English

     In the course of practicing oral English, teacher tells in detail seldom, leaving students certain time and space on purpose, and pays attention to arousing students positive thinking, probing boldly, intelligence-developing and imagination-activating to train their innovative ability and the ability to express. For example: When stimulating students discuss the origin and the characteristics of Great Britain and American festival, we can divide them into groups and assign them to find out the name, date, custom of a festival and then perform together by the group member to make other people guess what the festival is. This application of thinking method that from concrete to abstract, from analyzing to synthesizing promotes the students improvement of thinking ability greatly, facilitates their good habit of  "think much, ask much, think diligently, think properly more", facilitates the development of their intelligence and cultivation of initiative spirit. Some designs of spoken practice haven’t given full expression, we may let the students continue to plot in this foundation of it freely and then perform it to the class. This could deepen their understanding to the content of this lesson, and impel their grasping of the language form in this lesson correctly; it also helps arousing students enthusiasm fully, and makes them become the subject of class.

    2.4  Application in Reading Teaching

     For reading, to the question that students put forward, we should lead students to discuss in groups. On the basis of students answers, the teacher enumerates a large number of examples to inspire students further exploration and answering positively and creatively in order to achieve the goal of consolidating old knowledge, exploring new knowledge and grasping new knowledge. Before reading, we’d better lead the students to forecast the content of article according to the title and the related questions. These can make them understand the article’s topic and the related knowledge and life experience concerning about this topic. This helps their further understanding of the article. In the reading process appropriate questions can help the students to understand the article well and make them form a good reading habit. The questions we suppose should be hierarchical involving the surface and in-depth significance of the article. After reading, we should ask some extended question to the students, which not only may help the students consolidate the knowledge they have studied, moreover, may raise students criticalness power of thought. Therefore, the questions should involve summary of the article, authors manner, judgment of content (or characters) as well as the understanding after reading and so on.

    In this way, not only has stimulated students curiosity but also could we suggested the new subject. Through discussing conscientiously, students can mostly understand the purport of the article and the purpose for reading. Through heuristic teaching, the students intelligence has been developed; their creative thinking ability has been trained. Therefore accepting new knowledge becomes an easy thing for them.

    2.5  Application in Grammar Teaching

Guide progressively in grammar teaching, bring out students to explore the new knowledge on the basis of what they have known. Inner link exists among English grammars, and students learning process is a progressive one. According to the law of study and cognitive psychology of students, using the old knowledge they have studied and deriving new knowledge out progressively is the effective way to implement heuristic teaching. Generally speaking, the understanding at last stage is not merely pregnant with the rudiment one in the latter half, and is the potentiality. Only paying attention to the potentiality in this respect, especially making students to contact existing experience and knowledge voluntarily by the way of reviewing and contrasting, distinguishing and analyzing, setting up connecting, could we realize the leap from known to the new knowledge smoothly. For example: In the teaching of the adverbial modifier and adverbial subordinate clause, we can teach students what an adverbial modifier is at first, and then how many kinds of adverbial modifier does it have, what kind of words can become adverbial modifier and its use. Finally the subordinate clause is taught and we go forward to the adverbial subordinate clause progressively. This helps students understand this grammar point effectively through the teachers inspiration.

2.6  Application in Writing Teaching

Training for writing ability undoubtedly needs training method and skill, such as looking up dictionary, query, answering questions, analyzing and appreciating. If our students know method and skill they can form skill progressively and use them in a flexible and creative way to own high level ability. So teachers must pay attention to the training for method and skill in students exercise, pursue benefit training. Teacher neednt restrain more subjects-writing such as small-scale poem, the prose, and the English novel, etc. to train the students creative power when doing practice on composition for entrance-examination. 

    Heuristic teaching is the key to training students ability. The purpose of it not merely lies in developing students intelligence; it lies in cultivating and improving their ability of analyzing and solving practical problems. In teaching, the teachers method is: on one hand, leading students to carry on positive thinking by practicing activity of "acquiring knowledge" in order to train students cognitive ability progressively. This method changes the outmoded one that teacher dominates the whole course of "acquiring knowledge" in teaching and ignores the course of students positive thinking. It changes the method that is called "monodrama" or "spoon-feed"; on the other hand, instructing students how to carry on the training for logical thinking and dialectical thinking purposefully and planned, training them to analyze the problem and solve problem by the activity of "using knowledge". Besides we should carry on the training for the comprehensive exercises frequently. Only in this way, could we really reach the basic demand of "Education should face modernization, meet the needs of the world, and face the future".

     Demands for Teachers

    3.1  Paying Attention to the Stage of Heuristic Teaching

     Heuristic teaching can divide the teaching course into two stages: training and developing. The tasks of the first stage are that teachers turn the teaching task into students own needs and motives. The teacher mainly stimulates students inherent study impetus at this stage, makes students keep vigorous curiosity and strong interest to realize the combination between inherent motive force and the sense of duty of study. The teacher should create one practice situation for students learning on their own at this stage, offer essential information to them, and make them study conscientiously, actively and voluntarily. Through studying, they have accumulated certain perceptual knowledge, stimulated enthusiasm out, had the desire of gaining knowledge and try every possible means to solve problems.  Encouragement of teacher and self-study of students are the characteristics of this stage.

    The second stages task is to make the perceptual knowledge of middle school students in the first stage rise to rational knowledge, to make the demand of teaching turned into students cognitive structure. This stage helps students form a new knowledge structure and increase new knowledge going on mainly through teachers explanation, many exercises and experiments. In this stage, we must take note of initiating students to think actively, we must train their ability of drawing inferences about other cases from one instance and achieving mastery through a comprehensive study of the subject. Therefore, the feature is teachers teaching and students practicing. Of course, the two stages are not separate; they make the class an entity. They can be seemed as the "two wings" of modern teaching.

    3.2  Realization of the Purpose of Heuristic Teaching

    Teacher should have clear purpose when teaching. We must make the students know what knowledge is what students should understand, what should be understood and grasped so that we can let them have clear purpose in the course of studying. The teacher should take different ways to lead students to discover the problems, analyze the problem and solve the problem. And for students, they can prepare lessons before class for they have got the purpose of what they will learn. During preparing lessons, the students learn the general idea about the content and raise some questions about the lesson they will have, which will enhances the efficiency of the class and make them think initiatively. 

    In this way they could carry on thinking positively and voluntarily, they could understand knowledge more deeply and grasp what they should know more firmly to reach a good effect.

     

     

    3.3  Arousing the Enthusiasm of Student

    Heuristic teaching is one of the routes to implement quality-oriented education. Training students positive thinking has become task of top priority. So, the teacher should be good at protecting and arousing the enthusiasm of student and handle the relation between leading factors and subject well. In the classroom, if students can not answer teachers question at once, the teacher cannot be irritable but catch an opportunity to offer him inspiration and give him the chance to try it again. To those who have wrong answer, as teacher, we should help them to answer the question correctly again with good intension while affirming their progress to make them experience the successful happiness because of answering the question at last by oneself, thus we can stimulate their enthusiasm and initiative. If some student proposes a question that is unexpected to the teacher, the teacher should not suppress him or stop him at that moment. So long as thinking of the question which students put forward is correct, positive, even wrong, the teachers should give the appropriate way to react, which will have a great impact on students lifetime study. Oppositely, teachers criticism will dampen students study enthusiasm even injure their self-esteem. "A stone evokes a thousand storeys of waves", the atmosphere of the classroom becomes active from this. Through leading, explaining, answering the question clearly, we have taken students to a brand-new world, impelled them to think more positively, more voluntarily when having class.

    3.4  Conforming to Students’ Actual Situation

    At the time of teaching, we should accord with students understanding law and their existing level of knowledge, and accord with the students’ characteristics and positive factor while unfavorable factor. So, if we want to make students obtain new knowledge, we must found the scene of moving, from light to deep, from the close-by to those far off, from old to new. By the juncture, transforming point and contradiction of the old knowledge and the new one we teacher lead our students to review what we have taught; we make questions that seem to be by accident but in fact are designed meticulously to lead them master new knowledge; the profundity and difficulty of the questions we raise should be suitable and the tempo of them should be proper and just right for purpose. They should be suited to the needs of the students’ hearts. What we have done will bring the students’ thinking to “the nearest developing area” and impel their finding out the way to solving problems by themselves. We can also conclude the systematic knowledge to help their fully-understanding. Consequently, this requires our teacher should study content of courses thoroughly, stress the key, stress the key points to stimulate students thirsty for knowledge constantly and impel their "positive transfer". In this way, students can establish now cognitive structure by themselves at the time of optimizing their knowledge structure. And teachers can bring their inspiration into full play. If we want to acquire actual effect, we must learn the real standard of the students to realize suiting the instruction to the students’ level.

    3.5  Coaching Students before Class

    The teacher should coach his or her students before having class. English is a basic tool. If we want to enable students grasp knowledge correctly, lay a solid foundation, possess high-level ability, we must accomplish the following several points soon: First of all, the teacher should deal with each text synthetically when preparing lessons, define the teaching goal clearly, understand the content of courses accurately which is including two respects--- rudimentary knowledge and basic skill. The rudimentary knowledge includes five items: pronunciation, words, grammar, rhetoric, general knowledge of recreation and sports; the basic skill also includes five items: reading, writing, hearing, speaking, analyzing and understanding. The contents of these two respects require the teachers preparing for the teaching program and concrete scheme. Secondly, according to the characteristics of recreation and sports the teacher find out the role of each unit in the whole book and its position in the whole teaching in order to gain the profundity and scope that should be taught of each unit during the teaching process.

The teacher should strengthen coaching the students before teaching on the basis of grasping the teaching material. Coaching before lesson cant be ignored for the reason that it benefits for mobilizing the students initiative. The teachers coaching before lesson instruct students how to use the reference books to clear away the word obstacle and make them understand new lesson. Also it offers the condition of querying and dispelling doubt to students including helping students to review knowledge that have learned already, because the course of dispelling doubts is one that seeking and obtaining new course of knowledge through using the old knowledge.

     

    To sum up, we can find out that heuristic teaching requires high-quality teachers who are drawing the newest achievements of pedagogy and psychology from advanced experience constantly in order to update teaching method, improve teaching art, take flexible and lively teaching form in the class.

    Time requires teachers renew our conception, grasp the developing and advanced teaching theory, and teach in accordance with the students aptitude and their psychological characteristics to realize real quality-oriented education.

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

Conclusion

 

    The major problem that is long-term existing of the teaching method of the English lesson in high school are "spoon-fed" teaching, which has not only stifled the thinking of students, and make them lose their interest for English lesson even cause their weariful psychology for English lesson. Therefore I think that if we want to make them more initiative and raise their interest for learning, we must reform traditional pedagogy, abolish spoon-fed teaching. And the effective method with spoon-fed abolishment is application of the principle of heuristic teaching.

    First we must be clear about the significance. The “inspiration” may be understood by “enlightening, stimulation” that is, raising questions, enlightening the method and the way of solving problems, namely stimulating the student to think initiatively, and then analyzing, solving the problem. After that we should seize the characteristic.

    The basic characteristic of heuristic teaching is: bringing the leading role of  teacher in teaching into full play; mobilizing the initiative of students, making students think actively and consider problems initiatively to grasp knowledge, develop their intellection, cultivate ability and innovative spirit. Ancient and modern, Chinese and foreign, a lot of educationists attach importance to heuristic teaching very much, such as Confucius, the author of "Learning", Socrates, etc. The heuristic teachings common characteristic is: In the teaching process, teacher adopts effective method and organizes the class according to the different teaching goals and teaching materials especially students aptitude.

    We say that the new curriculum have the brand-new idea, “Independent, cooperation, investigation”. And they are the new curriculum’s main melody and the essence, emphasizing the raising and the expression of innovative ability, cherishing students’ consciousness of critique and the spirit of suspect to cause the students to be glad at investigating. The application of heuristic teaching of English in high school must be the only road to realize quality-oriented education truly.

     

     

     

9
5
[作者:初中英语王晓宇 关键词:An Essay on Heuristi 录入:会员_初中英语王晓宇 责编: 阅读次数:33323]

相关文章 相关新闻 相关软件 相关教程 公共评论 发表评论

  • ·暂无相关内容
  • ·暂无相关内容
  • ·暂无相关内容
  • ·暂无相关内容
    评论载入中...
    您的称呼  验 证 码   
    您的评论 [ 最多字数:  已用字数:剩余字数:]

     
COPYRIGHT © 2008-2015 黑龙江省鸡西实验中学校园网 V4.0 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED .
站长:网络中心 联系:jxsyzxxxzx@126.com 网络中心电话:0467-2395228
地址:鸡西市鸡冠区和平南大街8号 邮编:158100 办公室电话:0467-2395287 邮箱:bgs5285@126.com
页面加载时间:250.00ms
[黑ICP备09024125号]
分享到: